Construction Phase-Site

Construction Phase-Site and Landscape in Architecture:

The construction phase for landscape and site refers to the period when the exterior environment is shaped and constructed according to the landscape design plan. This includes:

  • Site Preparation: Clearing the land, grading for drainage, and establishing the general site infrastructure.
  • Hardscape Installation: Constructing the non-living elements of the landscape, such as paths, walls, patios, decks, and irrigation systems.
  • Softscape Installation: Planting trees, shrubs, flowers, grass, and other living horticultural elements.

Landscape Construction Documents:

In the context of landscape architecture, the construction documents have a similar structure to those in building architecture but with a focus on the natural environment, user experience in outdoor spaces, and the interaction between built structures and the land. Here’s what they generally include:

1.Landscape Drawings:

  • Site Plans: These indicate the arrangement of the landscape elements in relation to the buildings and natural features of the site.
  • Grading and Drainage Plans: Outline changes to land topography and systems for directing water runoff to prevent erosion and flooding.
  • Hardscape Plans: Detailed designs of non-living elements such as walkways, walls, terraces, water features, and outdoor structures.
  • Planting Plans: Specify the location, species, and care requirements of all trees, shrubs, groundcovers, and other plant material.
  • Irrigation Plans: Show the layout of sprinkler systems and other irrigation components, ensuring effective water distribution.
  • Lighting Plans: Illustrate outdoor lighting fixture locations for aesthetics, safety, and functionality.
  • Construction Details: Provide specifications for the construction of landscape elements, like benches, lighting, pavements, and planters.

2.Landscape Specifications:

  • Document accompanying the drawings that detail the materials, installation methods, and quality standards for the landscape project.

3.Landscape Quantities and Cost Estimates:

  • A thorough inventory of all the materials and elements required and their estimated costs.

During the Construction Phase:


This marks the start of the construction process, where the contractor sets up their base of operations, including securing the site, bringing in temporary utilities, etc.


Involves the moving and modification of the existing land for the installation of the design’s hardscape and softscape, as well as ensuring proper drainage and erosion control.

Hardscape Construction

Includes building the footings, laying pavements, constructing walls, assembling outdoor furniture, and other structures.

Softscape Installation

Planting is usually done after most construction has been completed to avoid damage to plants. It involves soil preparation, plant positioning as per the plan, and mulching to enhance soil conditions.

Irrigation and Lighting

These systems are generally installed following major planting to avoid damage. They are essential for plant health and night use of outdoor spaces, respectively.

Finish and Cleanup

Surfaces are finished as needed, any protective materials are removed, and the site is thoroughly cleaned.

Punch List

The last step where the landscape architect inspects the work, noting any issues that need to be addressed before the final acceptance of the project.